Botonesan is a stout, erect, nonaromatic, hairy, annual herb, about 0.5 to 1.5 meters high, with green or purplish 4-angled stems. Leaves are lanceolate, 8 to 14 centimeters long, with toothed margins. Flowers are numerous, crowded in long-peduncles, growing up to 10 centimeters in length and the heads 1to 2 centimeters in diameter with basal involucres of hairy bracts. Calyx is green, 4 millimeters long, accrescent, 8 millimeters long in fruit. Corolla is white, 6 millimeters long.
Decoction of roots used for amenorrhea.
Used by the Maranaos for dry cough and tooth aches; gas pains in infants and convulsions in children.
Ringworm Bush or better known as Akapulko is a coarse, erect, branched shrub, 1.5 to 3 meters high. Leaves are pinnate and 40 to 60 centimeters long, with orange rachis on stout branches. Each leaf has 16 to 28 leaflets, 5 to 15 centimeters in length, broad and rounded at the apex, with a small point at the tip. Leaflets gradually increase in size from the base towards the tip of the leaf. Inflorescences are terminal and at the axils of the leaves, in simple or panicled racemes, and 10 to 50 centimeters long. Flowers are yellow, about 4 centimeters inn diameter, at the axils of thin, yellow, oblong, concave bracts which are 2.5 to 3 centimeters long. Pod is rather straight, dark brown or nearly black, about 15 centimeters long and 15 millimeters wide. On both sides of the pods there is a wing that runs the length of the pod. Pod contains 50 to 60 flattened, triangular seeds.
Akapulko has a long history of medical usage and has a long list of folkloric health benefits for the following conditions. Akapulko is commonly used as an antibacterial and anti-fungal treatment for various skin diseases that include: tinea infection, ringworms, eczema, scabies, insect bites, and all sorts of skin itchiness. Akapulko is used as mouth wash for various mouth problems that include ulcers, sores, and toothache.
Eucalyptus robusta, commonly known as swamp mahogany or swamp messmate, is a tree native to eastern Australia. It is an important winter-flowering species in eastern Australia, and has been planted extensively in many countries around the world. Its timber is used for firewood and in general construction. Growing in swampy or waterlogged soils, it is up to 30 m (100 ft) high with thick spongy reddish brown bark and dark green broad leaves, which help form a dense canopy. The white to cream flowers appear in autumn and winter. The leaves are commonly eaten by insects, and are a food item for the koala. It is an important winter-flowering species in eastern Australia, and has been planted extensively in many countries around the world. Its timber is used for firewood and in general construction.
Eucalyptus robusta grows as a tree to around 20–30 metres (65–100 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1 metre (3 ft) in diameter at breast height (dbh). The trunk and branches are covered with thick red-brown bark, which has a spongy feel and is stringy peeling in longitudinal strips. The long irregular branches spread laterally, and form a dense canopy with the broad green leaves. Arranged alternately along the stems, these measure 10–16 centimetres (4–6.4 in) long by 2.7 to 4.5 cm (1.1–1.8 in) wide. The white or cream flowers are clustered in inflorescences of from seven to 13 flowers. The flowers appear anywhere from March to September, and peak over May and June. The buds measure 2 cm by 0.8 cm (0.8 by 0.3 in) wide and are distinctive in that the operculum has a prominent long beak, making them fusiform (spindle-shaped). The woody fruits ripen by May to October.
Specimens of E. robusta were first collected by First Fleet surgeon and naturalist John White, and the species description was published by James Edward Smith in his 1793 collaboration with George Shaw, Zoology and Botany of New Holland. Shortly afterwards, the description was reprinted verbatim in Smith’s A Specimen of the Botany of New Holland, and it is this publication that is usually credited.
Alfalfa is derived from Arabic al-fac-facah, which means “Father of all foods.” Alfalfa is a herbaceous perennial with deeply penetrating taproot. Stems are procumbent, ascending to erect, arising from a woody base. Leaf is trifoliate, stipules triangular, 5 to 15 millimeters long, pubescent on the lower surface, glabrous on the upper surface, and joined at the base, coarsely toothed.
Alfalfa is a type of flowering plant that belongs to the pea family. It originates from south-east Asia. Cultivation of alfalfa started in Persia 6.000 years ago. Due to ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and increase fertility of the soil, alfalfa is often cultivated as rotation crop (it improves quality of soil for the future crops). Alfalfa attracts more than 100 birds, various mammals and insects that use this plant as a source of food and shelter. People cultivate alfalfa mainly as animal fodder. It is third most important crop in the USA (after corn and soybean).
Alfalfa has been used for thousands of years in many parts of the world, as a source of food for people and livestock and as a medicinal herb. It is probably more useful as a source of easily accessible nutrients than as a medicinal herb. Alfalfa is an excellent source of most vitamins, including vitamins A, D, E, and K. Vitamin K is critical in blood clotting, so alfalfa may have some use in improving clotting. It also contains trace minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron , phosphorous, and potassium . Alfalfa is also higher in protein than many other plant foods. This abundance of nutrients has made alfalfa a popular tonic for convalescents when brewed into tea. In addition to using the seeds and leaves as food, alfalfa has a long history of folk use in Europe as a diuretic or “water pill.” It is also said that alfalfa can lower cholesterol . Alfalfa is used as to treat arthritis, diabetes, digestive problems, weight loss, ulcers, kidney and bladder problems, prostate conditions, asthma , and hay fever . Alfalfa is also said to be estrogenic (estrogen-like).